A functional is a function that takes a function as an input and returns a vector as output. Here’s a simple functional: it calls the function provided as input with 1000 random uniform numbers. randomise <- function(f) f( runif (1e3)) randomise(mean) #> [1] 0.506 randomise(mean) #> [1] 0.501 randomise(sum) #> [1] 489 Copy. Appending multiple elements to the **Vector**. To append multiple elements to a **Vector** in **R**, use the append () method and pass the **vector** to the existing **vector**. It will spread out in the existing **vector** and add multiple elements to that **vector**. Let's say we have two **vectors**: v1 and v2. We need to add all the elements of v2 to v1, and to do that. **Vector** Images. **Vector** images don’t contain any pixels. They contain dots, which are called “Points”. But unlike a bitmap image of a square for example, which could contain thousands or millions of individual pixels to display the image, a **vector** is made up of only a few points and a line that connects the points to draw the shape. Here’s exactly when the replicate () function in **R** can be really handy. set.seed ( 2020 ) replicate (n = 4, rnorm ( 5, 0, 1 ), simplify = FALSE )) Code language: **R** (**r**) Note, if we don’t use. Here's exactly when the replicate () function in **R** can be really handy. set.seed ( 2020 ) replicate (n = 4, rnorm ( 5, 0, 1 ), simplify = FALSE )) Code language: **R** (**r**) Note, if we don't use simplify = FALSE we would get a matrix. See the image below, where we have a 4 x 5 matrix with the values. After we have simulated data in **R** using the. Appending multiple elements to the **Vector**. To append multiple elements to a **Vector** in **R**, use the append () method and pass the **vector** to the existing **vector**. It will spread out in the existing **vector** and add multiple elements to that **vector**. Let's say we have two **vectors**: v1 and v2. We need to add all the elements of v2 to v1, and to do that. To **repeat** a whole matrix in **R**, we can follow the below steps −. First of all, create a matrix. Then, use rep function to **repeat** the matrix. **R** Exercises – 71-80 – Loops (For Loop, Which Loop, **Repeat** Loop), If and Ifelse Statements in **R**; **R** Exercises – 61-70 – **R** String Manipulation | Working with ‘gsub’ and ‘regex’ | Regular Expressions in **R**; **R** Exercises – 51-60 – Data Pre-Processing with Data.Table; **R** Exercises – 41-50 – Working with Time Series Data. **Subsetting**. **R**’s **subsetting** operators are powerful and fast. Mastery of **subsetting** allows you to succinctly express complex operations in a way that few other languages can match. **Subsetting** is hard to learn because you need to master a number of interrelated concepts: The three **subsetting** operators. The six types of **subsetting**. Course materials for ‘Introduction to Programming with **R**’. ## [1] "Element 1 is Innsbruck" ## [1] "Element 2 is Austria" Zero-length: Be aware of zero-length **vectors**!Imagine that our **vector** info may at some point become an empty **vector** (0 elements). In this case 1:length(info) creates a sequence 1:0 which is c(1, 0) – and will cause problems. The example below demonstrates. History of **R**. Early languages FORTRAN, C; S language in 1970s; programming plus stats, matrix algebra, graphics later; Open-source **R** in 1992; first stable version in 2000; Advantages of **R**. interpreted (for interactive use) ... Using rep to. For Python 3.x, the pip utility also appears to be working. numpy - numeric functions ; scipy - scientific functions; gdal - raster file I/O and some other useful functions ; fiona - **vector** file I/O ; shapely - data types for working with points, polygons, and polylines (line strings in open source terminology) ogr - **vector** transformations. The **vector** is extended by inserting new elements before the element at the specified position, effectively increasing the container size by the number of elements inserted. This causes an automatic reallocation of the allocated storage space if -and only if- the new **vector** size surpasses the current **vector** capacity. Because **vectors** use an array as their underlying. The rotations with 3 unique axes, such as RotXYZ , are said to follow the Tait Bryan angle ordering, while those which **repeat** (e.g. EulerXYX ) are said to use Proper. Aug 22, 2020 · Get code examples like "opencv rotation matrix to euler angles" instantly right from your google search results with the Grepper Chrome Extension. Ordinary Least Squares regression provides linear models of continuous variables. However, much data of interest to statisticians and researchers are not continuous and so other methods must be used to create useful predictive models. The glm() command is designed to perform generalized linear models (regressions) on binary outcome data, count data, probability data,. This tutorial explains how to crop a raster using the extent of a **vector** shapefile. We will also cover how to extract values from a raster that occur within a set of polygons, or in a buffer (surrounding) region around a set of points. Learning Objectives After completing this tutorial, you will be able to:. **Repeat** **vector** in **r**. Code examples. 0. 0. **repeat** each value in a **vector** in **r** > rep(c(2, 4, 2), each = 3) [1] 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2. Similar pages Similar pages with examples. **r** how to **repeat** a **vector**. **r** **repeat** a **vector** n times. repeating **vector** in **r**. how to **repeat** same value in a **vector** in **r**. An Introduction to Loops in **R**. According to the **R** base manual, among the control flow commands, the loop constructs are for, while and **repeat**, with the additional clauses break and next. Remember that control flow commands are the commands that enable a program to branch between alternatives, or to “take decisions”, so to speak. Today I worked on a simulation program which require me to create a matrix by repeating the **vector** n times (both by row and by col). Even the task is extremely simple and. Dec 08, 2020 · How to Create List in **R**. To create a list in **R**, use the list() function. A list is a generic **vector** containing other objects. To check the data type of any variable in **R** language, use the typeof() function.. **repeatDur**. The **repeatDur** attribute specifies the total duration for repeating an animation. You can use this attribute with the following SVG elements: <animate>. <animateColor>. <animateMotion>. <animateTransform>. <set>. This lecture covers fundamental **R** usage, such as assigning values to a variable, using functions, and commenting code, and more. Under this sentence, we will insert our first code chunk. Remember that you insert a code chunk by either clicking the “Insert” button or pressing Ctrl/Cmd + Alt + i simultaneously. **R** is a powerful (and free) statistical software that is making headway into academic, government, and industry uses. It may be downloaded on **r**-project.org at no cost. working with directories. accessing and saving files. closing **R**. comments. variables. **vectors**. more on **vectors**. How to create and manipulate **Vectors**. Step 1. A **vector** can be created using an in-built function in **R** called c (). Elements must be comma-separated. > c(10, 20, 30) [1] 10 20 30. Step 2. A **vector** can be of different modes: numeric (and arithmetic), logical, or can consist of characters. Most of the functions in R take a vector as input and return a vectorized output. Similarly, the vector equivalent of the traditional if...else block is the ifelse () function. The syntax of the ifelse () function is: ifelse(test_expression, x, y) The output vector has the element x if the output of the test_expression is TRUE. R.Exe, Rcmd.Exe, Rscript.Exe and Rterm.Exe: What's the Difference. . Creating a function in **R** To introduce **R** functions we will create a function to work with geometric progressions. A geometric progression is a succession of numbers a_1, a_2, a_3 a1,a2,a3 such that each of them (except the first) is equal to the last multiplied by a constant **r**. It simply means that one or more of the **vectors** is too short. [6,] 6 6 6 [7,] 7 7 7 [8,] 1 8 8 In the printout of the combination of these three **vectors**, the first one ends in 1 while the other two end in 8. Solomon Press C4 **VECTORS** Answers - Worksheet E 1 a 1 + 2λ = 7 ∴ λ = 3 2 a AB = 5 0 6 − − 1 6 4 = 4 6 10 Worksheet 6 = 2) Find the **vector** projection of **vector** = (2,-3) onto **vector** = (-7,1) In this worksheet, we will practice calculating the **vector** product of two **vectors** using both the components of the **vectors** and the magnitudes of the. View source: R/Rfunctions.R. Description. **Repeat** a **vector** until it matches the length of another **vector** Usage. 1. rep_along (x, along.with) Arguments. x: **Vector** to be repeated. along.with: **Vector** whose length to match. Value. A **vector** of same type as x Examples. 1. rep_along (1: 4, letters) Example output. **R** - **Repeat** Loop, The **Repeat** loop executes the same code again and again until a stop condition is met. ... Support **Vector** Machines in **R** (SVM in **R**) 27 Lectures 3 hours .... Jun 22, 2020 · One sample T-Testing approach collects a huge amount of data and tests it on random samples. To perform T-Test in **R**, normally distributed data is required. This test is used to test the mean of the sample with the population. For example, the height of persons living in an area is different or identical to other persons living in other areas.. **Logical Index Vector**. A new **vector** can be sliced from a given **vector** with a **logical index vector**, which has the same length as the original **vector**. Its members are TRUE if the corresponding members in the original **vector** are to be included in the slice, and FALSE if otherwise. For example, consider the following **vector s** of length 5. > s = c. There are four types of index **vectors**: Logical index **vector**. Positive-integral index **vector**. Negative-integral index **vector**. Character index **vector**. Let us look at these different indexing. The most basic way to create is. # with 1 integer Element print (10L) # with 1 String element print ("Hello") Create R Vector using Range In this programming, there is a special operator called Range or Colon, and this will help to create a. A second way to call the **REPEAT function** is to provide an argument, freq that has the same number of elements as x. The return value is a row **vector** in which x[1] is repeated freq[1] times, x[2] is repeated freq[2] times, and so forth, where the elements of. There are two methods to create a **vector** with repeated values in **R** but both of them have different approaches, first one is by repeating each element of the **vector** and the second **repeats** the elements by a specified number of times. Both of these methods use rep function to create the **vectors**. Example Consider the below examples −. 13 hours ago · I also have individual bounds for each variable x1, x2, x3...xn a <= x1 <= b c <= x2 <= d ... For this, I wrote a python script, using the scipy.optimize.minimize implementation with constraints and bounds, but I am unable to fulfill my bounds and constraints in the solutions. These are all cases where optimization could converge to a solution. Randomize Vector in R (Example) | Shuffle & Mix Elements Randomly. In this R programming tutorial you’ll learn how to shuffle a vector or array randomly. The content is structured as. **Support Vector Machine**. The advent of computers brought on rapid advances in the field of statistical classification, one of which is the **Support Vector Machine**, or SVM. The goal of an SVM is to take groups of observations and construct boundaries to predict which group future observations belong to based on their measurements. History of **R**. Early languages FORTRAN, C; S language in 1970s; programming plus stats, matrix algebra, graphics later; Open-source **R** in 1992; first stable version in 2000; Advantages of **R**. interpreted (for interactive use) ... Using rep to. Here, I’m using it with Arkansas and my getpostalcode **vector**: get_value("Arkansas", getpostalcode). Easy lookups in **R**! Just remember that names have to be unique. You can **repeat** values, but not. **Vectors** Selecting **Vector** Elements x[4] The fourth element. x[-4] All but the fourth. x[2:4] Elements two to four. x[-(2:4)] All elements except two to four. x[c(1, 5)] Elements one and ﬁve. x[x == 10] Elements which are equal to 10. x[x < 0] All elements less than zero. x[x %in% c(1, 2, 5)] Elements in the set 1, 2, 5. By Position By Value. In **R**, we can write data frames easily to a file, using the write.table command. > write.table (cars1, file="cars1.txt", quote=F) The first argument refers to the data frame to be written to the output file, the second is the name of the output file. By default **R** will surround each entry in the output file by quotes, so we use quote=F. Generate Statement – VHDL Example. Generate statements are used to accomplish one of two goals: Replicating Logic in VHDL. Turning on/off blocks of logic in VHDL. The generate keyword is always used in a combinational process or logic block. It should not be driven with a clock. Say I have a column **vector** x=[a;b;c]. I want to **repeat** each element n times to make a long length(x)*n **vector**. For example, for n=3, the answer would be: ans= a a a b b b. You can use rep () function to **repeat** elements of a **vector** or the whole **vector** itself. E.g. To **repeat** each element the same number of times, you can use the argument "each " as follows: > a <- c (1,2,3) > b <- rep (a, each=3) > b [1] 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3. The RStudio console returns the result of the previous **R** code: A **vector** of length five consisting only of zeros. Example 2: Creating **Vector** of Zeros Using rep() Function & 0L. Alternatively to the **R** syntax shown in Example 1, we can also specify 0L instead of 0 within the rep function:. Write an R function to convert a vector of numeric values to the corresponding z-score vector. Write an R function to generate \(n\)random numbers from a normal distribution and\(m\)random numbers from a uniform distribution. The secant method for finding the solution of an equation of the form \(f(x)=0\)is. Here's exactly when the replicate () function in **R** can be really handy. set.seed ( 2020 ) replicate (n = 4, rnorm ( 5, 0, 1 ), simplify = FALSE )) Code language: **R** (**r**) Note, if we don't use simplify = FALSE we would get a matrix. See the image below, where we have a 4 x 5 matrix with the values. After we have simulated data in **R** using the. This Section illustrates how to duplicate lines of a data table (or a tibble) using the dplyr package. In case we want to use the functions of the dplyr package, we first need to install and load dplyr: install.packages("dplyr") # Install dplyr package library ("dplyr") # Load dplyr package. Now, we can apply the slice, rep, and n functions as. We can add a new **vector** in given **vector** with c() function or use append() function in case we want to add it at a specific location > k <- c(5,10,15) > j <- c(j,k) > j [1] 5 5 6 9 100 5 10 15. To truncate a **vector**, assign only the items you want to keep. If we want to remove k from j > j <- j[1:5] > j [1] 5 5 6 9 100. Delete a **Vector** in **R**. b = **regress**(y,X) returns a **vector** b of coefficient estimates for a multiple linear regression of the responses in **vector** y on the predictors in matrix X. To compute coefficient estimates for a model with a constant term (intercept), include a column of ones in the matrix X .. The key features of VectorCAST for **C and C++** unit and integration testing include: Supports C++11, C++14 and C++17. Supports a Wide Range of Compilers, Simulators, and Processor Architectures. Eliminates Need to Build Test Drivers and Stubs Manually. Integrated Code Coverage Capabilities, including MC/DC. Supports Host, Simulator, or Embedded. **Vector** of **repeat** values **r**. Code examples. 0. 0. **repeat** each value in a **vector** in **r** > rep(c(2, 4, 2), each = 3) [1] 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2. Similar pages Similar pages with examples. **repeat** **vector** in **r**. **r** how to **repeat** a **vector**. **r** **repeat** a **vector** n times. repeating **vector** in **r**. **Dr. Vector**’s tracks ST-01 Party All the Time by **Dr. Vector** published on 2022-02-18T16:11:24Z. Conan McGuinness Global Rally Grand Prix '95 Intro Theme by **Dr. Vector** ... **Repeat** track. Volume. Toggle mute Use shift and the arrow up and down keys to change the volume.. Course materials for ‘Introduction to Programming with **R**’. ## [1] "Element 1 is Innsbruck" ## [1] "Element 2 is Austria" Zero-length: Be aware of zero-length **vectors**!Imagine that our **vector** info may at some point become an empty **vector** (0 elements). In this case 1:length(info) creates a sequence 1:0 which is c(1, 0) – and will cause problems. The example below demonstrates. Compare Packages. Package. $5. Basic Basic Pattern **Repeat** package. $15. Standard Standard Pattern **Repeat** Package. $20. Premium Premium Pattern **Repeat** Package. 1 Pattern 2 **Vector** Elements Commercial use High-res Printable PNG file Color. Assuming the input is a list of ints and the output should also be a list. To replace a value in an **R** **vector**, we can use replace function. It is better to save the replacement with a new object, even if you name that new object same as the original,. V = √(P × **R**) = √ (50 × 8) = 20 volts. Example 1: input type that allows float number. R Documentation Character Vectors Description Create or test for objects of type "character" . Usage character (length = 0) as.character (x, ...) is.character (x) Arguments Details as.character and is.character are generic: you can write methods to handle specific classes of objects, see InternalMethods. **Repeat** each element of a **vector** with each. There are three arguments that help us **repeat** the values in the **vector** in rep() with different patterns: each, times, and length.out. These can be used individually or in combination. With each we **repeat** each unique character in. We can assume r1 > ⋯ > rk (otherwise rearrange the summands) and αi ∈ Z (otherwise multiply by the common denominator). Choose n large enough that r1 > qn > r2 (2); we'll increase n two more times. The equality n! ⋅ (1) reads n!(α1 ∑qm < r1 1 m! + ⋯ + αk ∑qm < rk 1 m!) = 0. Rearranged (via (2) when m = n ), it reads. Michael. 6,747 21 50 80. 2. Just a heads up: duplicated is a function which finds duplicates within a **vector**. And as @thelatemail alludes to, **R** recycles, and so you simply need to indicate how many rows your matrix requires and **R** will automatically **repeat** the **vector** for you. - Ricardo Saporta. **Vectors** can also be created using seq() (sequence) or rep() (**repeat**) functions. We have already used some simple functions before, for example the c() command that we used to create **vectors**. Each function contains one or multiple arguments. These arguments are stated between the brackets of the function. The matrix can be created by using matrix function in **R** and if we want to create a matrix by replicating a **vector** then we just need to focus on the replication. For example, if we have a **vector** V and we want to create matrix by replicating V two times then the matrix can be created as matrix (replicate (2,V),nrow=2). Example1 Live Demo. Maple - Increase number of rows of table (Matrix, **Vector**, or piecewise function) Maple - New Row in Matrix, **Vector**, or a Piecewise Expression. MathType 7 - Align right. ... N.B. Snagit uses Ctrl + Shift + **R** for **Repeat** Last Capture. Change in Snagit Tools and then exit Snagit in order for Ctrl + Shift + **R** to work in Eclipse. - cropredy. Aug 2.

In this Tutorial we will learn **Repeat** and Replicate function in **R**. **Repeat** and Replicate are import among the **R** functions.. **Repeat** Function in **R**: The **Repeat** Function(loop) in **R** executes a same. The first produces a **vector**, the second a one column matrix.x=1:10# Method 1rep(x,each=3)# Method 2matrix(t ... add your blog! Learn **R**; **R** jobs. Submit a new job (it’s free). The first produces a **vector**, the second a one column matrix.x=1:10# Method 1rep(x,each=3)# Method 2matrix(t ... add your blog! Learn **R**; **R** jobs. Submit a new job (it’s free).

chesapeake village aptsThe rep () is a built-in generic **R** function that replicates the values in the provided **vector**. The rep () method takes a **vector** as an argument and returns the replicated values. Thus, the rep () is a vectorized looping function whose only goal is to achieve iteration without costing time and memory. b = **regress**(y,X) returns a **vector** b of coefficient estimates for a multiple linear regression of the responses in **vector** y on the predictors in matrix X. To compute coefficient estimates for a model with a constant term (intercept), include a column of ones in the matrix X .. To do so, you need a vector that specifies the rows you want to replicate based on their position. For example, this R code selects rows 1 and 3 and duplicates each one 3 times.. We can call the reindex function passing into the columns parameter a list containing the new order of columns.In this case, if we want to change the order of the columns using pandas.DataFrame.reindex we can use the following Python code: df = pd.DataFrame (np.random.rand (10, 4), columns= ['A', 'C', 'B', 'D']).The dimensions of the crosstab refer to the number of rows and columns in the. C++ std::find () Algorithm to **Check if Element Exists in Vector**. The find method is a part of the STL algorithm library; it can check if the given element exists in a particular range. The function searches for a factor that’s equal to the third parameter passed by the user. The corresponding return value is the iterator to the first element. a Sequential model, the model with an additional layer is returned. a Tensor, the output tensor from layer_instance (object) is returned. n. integer, repetition factor. batch_size. Fixed batch size for layer. name. An optional name string for the layer. Should be unique in a model (do not reuse the same name twice). times = 2 - **repeat** the **vector** two times We can see that we have repeated the whole **vector** two times. However, we can also **repeat** each element of the **vector**. For this we use the each parameter. Let's see an example. # **repeat** each element of **vector** 2 times numbers <- rep(c (2,4,6), each = 2) cat ("\nUsing each argument:", numbers) Output. The each argument is especially useful for expanding a **vector** of statistics of observational/experimental units into a **vector** of data.frame with repeated observations of these units. # same except **repeat** each integer next to each other rep (1:5, each=2) [1] 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5. The each argument is especially useful for expanding a **vector** of statistics of observational/experimental units into a **vector** of data.frame with repeated observations of these units. # same except **repeat** each integer next to each other rep (1:5, each=2) [1] 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5.

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subspace of V if and only if S is nonempty and closed under linear operations, i.e., x,y ∈ S =⇒ x+y ∈ S, x ∈ S =⇒ rx ∈ S for all **r** ∈ **R**. Remarks. The zero **vector** in a subspace is the same as the zero **vector** in V. Also, the in a. To find the dimension of Span ( T), we need to find a basis of Span ( T). One way to do this is to note. There are four types of index **vectors**: Logical index **vector**. Positive-integral index **vector**. Negative-integral index **vector**. Character index **vector**. Let us look at these different indexing. The names of the arguments are also important. **R** doesn’t care, but the readers of your code (including future-you!) will. Generally you should prefer longer, more descriptive names, but there are a handful of very common, very short names. It’s worth memorising these: x, y, z: vectors. w: a **vector** of weights. df: a data frame.. **Vector** Information (PR882580; published 26 September 2008) pLVX-IRES-Puro **Vector** Information . PT4063-5 Catalog No. 632183. pLVX-IRES-Puro **Vector** Map and Multiple Cloning Site (MCS). Description. pLVX-IRES-Puro is an HIV-1-based, lentiviral expression **vector** that allows the simultaneous . expression of your protein of interest and puromycin. Write an R function to convert a vector of numeric values to the corresponding z-score vector. Write an R function to generate \(n\)random numbers from a normal distribution and\(m\)random numbers from a uniform distribution. The secant method for finding the solution of an equation of the form \(f(x)=0\)is. Here, I’m using it with Arkansas and my getpostalcode **vector**: get_value("Arkansas", getpostalcode). Easy lookups in **R**! Just remember that names have to be unique. You can **repeat** values, but not. **R** Programming **- Repeat** LoopWatch More Videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htmLecture By: Mr. Ashish Sharma,. **Repeat** steps 2 and 3 for all **vectors** that are to be added; Draw the resultant from the tail of the first **vector** to the head of the last **vector**. Label this **vector** as Resultant or simply **R**. Using a ruler, measure the length of the resultant and determine its magnitude by converting to. The RStudio console returns the result of the previous **R** code: A **vector** of length five consisting only of zeros. Example 2: Creating **Vector** of Zeros Using rep() Function & 0L. Alternatively to the **R** syntax shown in Example 1, we can also specify 0L instead of 0 within the rep function:. big white fluffy dogunrealistic deadlines synonym

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Operations in **R Vector**. 1. Combining **Vector** in **R**. Functions are used to combine **vectors**. In order to combine the two **vectors** in **R**, we will create two new **vectors** ‘n’ and ‘s’. Then, we will create another **vector** that will combine these two using c (n,s) as follows:. **Vector** is a basic data structure in **R**. It contains element of the same type. The data types can be logical, integer, double, character, complex or raw. A **vector**’s type can be checked with the typeof() function. Another important property of a **vector** is its length.. The replication-competent vector can be grown to high titer on avian cells and then used like a replication-defective vector in mammalian cells or in transgenic mice expressing the RSV (A) receptor ( Federspiel et al. 1994, 1996 ). Figure 3 Comparison of ALV, RSV, and RCAS, a retroviral vector based on RSV. Before we get started with the motivating dataset, we need to cover the very basics of R. ### Objects Suppose a high school student asks us for help solving several quadratic equations of the form $ax^2+bx+c = 0$. The quadratic formula gives us the solutions: $$. Solomon Press C4 **VECTORS** Answers - Worksheet E 1 a 1 + 2λ = 7 ∴ λ = 3 2 a AB = 5 0 6 − − 1 6 4 = 4 6 10 Worksheet 6 = 2) Find the **vector** projection of **vector** = (2,-3) onto **vector** = (-7,1) In this worksheet, we will practice calculating the **vector** product of two **vectors** using both the components of the **vectors** and the magnitudes of the. The Nanobeam nB4 is a commercial-grade Gaussian round-beam **vector**-scan electron beam lithography system that uses a step-and-**repeat** method for nanopatterning. The system's design, with a short column and a small footprint offers enhance stability and tolerance to ambient conditions, including room temperature, stray field, and floor vibrations. You can use rep () function to **repeat** elements of a **vector** or the whole **vector** itself. E.g. To **repeat** each element the same number of times, you can use the argument "each " as follows: > a <- c (1,2,3) > b <- rep (a, each=3) > b [1] 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3. enframe() converts named atomic **vectors** or lists to one- or two-column data frames. For a list, the result will be a nested **tibble** with a column of type list. For unnamed **vectors**, the natural sequence is used as name column. deframe() converts two-column data frames to a named **vector** or list, using the first column as name and the second column as value. If the input has.

Repeateach element of avectorwith each. There are three arguments that help usrepeatthe values in thevectorin rep() with different patterns: each, times, and length.out. These can be used individually or in combination. With each werepeateach unique character invectorgiving the number of times torepeateach element if of length length(x), or torepeatthe wholevectorif of length 1. length.out non-negative integer. The desired length of the outputvector. ... As fromR2.4.0, function rep is a primitive, but (partial) matching of argument names is performed as for normal functions.repeatelements of avectoror the wholevectoritself. E.g. Torepeateach element the same number of times, you can use the argument "each " as follows: > a <- c (1,2,3) > b <- rep (a, each=3) > b [1] 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3